Concept Explanation and Example
A – Apex Trigger Apex triggers are blocks of code that automatically execute when specific events occur in Salesforce, like record creation or updates. Example:
apex public class AccountTriggerHandler {
  public static void onBeforeInsert(List newAccounts) {
    // Logic to be executed before inserting new accounts
  }
}
B – Before Trigger “Before triggers” execute before records are saved to the database, allowing you to validate or modify data. Example:
apex trigger AccountBeforeInsert on Account (before insert) {
  AccountTriggerHandler.onBeforeInsert(Trigger.new);
}
C – Context Variables Salesforce provides trigger context variables like Trigger.new and Trigger.old to access new and old record data within the trigger. Example:
apex public static void onBeforeUpdate(List newAccounts, List oldAccounts) {
  for (Integer i = 0; i < newAccounts.size(); i++) {
    Account newAccount = newAccounts[i];
    Account oldAccount = oldAccounts[i];
    // Compare and modify data as needed
  }
}
D - DML Operations Triggers often involve DML (Data Manipulation Language) operations to create, update, or delete records. Example:
apex public static void onBeforeInsert(List newAccounts) {
  insert newAccounts; // Insert new accounts into the database
}
E - Events Triggers are associated with specific events like "before insert" or "after update" that trigger code execution. Example:
apex trigger AccountBeforeInsert on Account (before insert) {
  // Trigger logic for before insert event
}
F - For Each Record Triggers operate on a set of records, and you can loop through these records for processing. Example:
apex public static void onBeforeUpdate(List newAccounts) {
  for (Account a : newAccounts) {
    // Process each new account
  }
}
G - Governor Limits Salesforce enforces governor limits on trigger execution, including limits on DML operations and CPU time. Example:
apex public static void onBeforeInsert(List newAccounts) {
  // Perform actions within governor limits
}
H - Handler Classes It's a best practice to organize trigger logic in separate handler classes to keep triggers focused and maintainable. Example:
apex public class AccountTriggerHandler {
  public static void onBeforeInsert(List newAccounts) {
    // Logic for before insert
  }
}
I - Insert Records Triggers can handle inserting new records by implementing logic to validate, modify, or associate related data. Example:
apex public static void onBeforeInsert(List newAccounts) {
    // Logic for new account records before insertion
  }
  
J - Junction Objects In Salesforce, triggers can be used to manage junction objects, which are used to create many-to-many relationships. Example:
apex trigger OpportunityContactJunctionTrigger on OpportunityContactJunction__c (after insert) {
  // Trigger logic for junction objects
}
K - Keep It Simple Best practice is to keep triggers simple and focused on specific tasks to ensure maintainability and avoid complexity. Example:
apex public static void onBeforeInsert(List newAccounts) {
    // Simple validation or modification logic
  }
  
L - Limits Testing It's crucial to test triggers with various data scenarios to ensure they operate within Salesforce's governor limits. Example:
apex @isTest public class AccountTriggerTest {
  @isTest static void testAccountInsert() {
    // Test trigger with various scenarios
  }
}
M - Multiple Events Triggers can respond to multiple events on the same object, such as "before insert" and "after update." Example:
apex trigger AccountTrigger on Account (before insert, after update) {
  // Trigger logic for multiple events
}
N - New Record Data Trigger.new provides access to the new record data, allowing you to work with the values of the records being inserted or updated. Example:
apex public static void onBeforeInsert(List newAccounts) {
  for (Account a : newAccounts) {
    String accountName = a.Name;
    // Access new account data
  }
}
O - Old Record Data Trigger.old allows you to access the old record data, useful for comparing changes and performing actions based on the previous state. Example:
apex public static void onAfterUpdate(List newAccounts, List oldAccounts) {
  for (Integer i = 0; i < newAccounts.size(); i++) {
    Account newAccount = newAccounts[i];
    Account oldAccount = oldAccounts[i];
    // Compare and act on changes
  }
}
P - Process Order Triggers are executed in a specific order as part of Salesforce's order of execution, which can impact how they interact with other processes. Example:
apex trigger AccountTrigger on Account (before insert) {
  // Trigger logic for before insert event
}
Q - Queueable Jobs For long-running or complex operations within triggers, you can enqueue queueable jobs to execute asynchronously. Example:
apex public static void onBeforeInsert(List newAccounts) {
  // Enqueue a queueable job for time-consuming tasks
}
R - Rollback You can roll back a transaction in a trigger using Database.rollback(savepoint) if an error occurs to maintain data integrity. Example:
apex public static void onBeforeInsert(List newAccounts) {
  Savepoint sp = Database.setSavepoint();
  try {
    // Attempt transaction
    // If an error occurs, roll back to the savepoint
    Database.rollback(sp);
  } catch (Exception e) {
    // Handle the error
  }
}
S - Standard Objects Triggers can be used with standard Salesforce objects like Accounts, Contacts, Opportunities, and custom objects created in your org. Example:
apex trigger OpportunityBeforeInsert on Opportunity (before insert) {
  // Trigger logic for before insert on Opportunities
}
T - Testing Salesforce provides testing frameworks for writing unit tests to ensure trigger logic functions correctly under different scenarios. Example:
apex @isTest public class AccountTriggerTest {
  @isTest static void testAccountInsert() {
    // Test trigger with various scenarios
  }
}
U - Updates Triggers are commonly used for handling record updates, allowing you to enforce data consistency and execute additional actions. Example:
apex trigger AccountBeforeUpdate on Account (before update) {
  // Trigger logic for before update event on Accounts
}
V - Validation Triggers can enforce data validation rules before records are saved, ensuring that only valid data is inserted or updated. Example:
apex public static void onBeforeInsert(List newAccounts) {
  // Validate account data before insertion
}
W - Workflow Rules Triggers can work in conjunction with workflow rules and processes, allowing for complex automation and business logic. Example:
apex public static void onBeforeInsert(List newAccounts) {
  // Trigger logic combined with workflow rules
}
X - Execute After Save "After triggers" execute after records are saved, which can be used for additional actions after data has been committed to the database. Example:
apex trigger AccountAfterInsert on Account (after insert) {
  // Trigger logic for after insert event
}
Y - Your Use Case Triggers should be tailored to your specific use cases, whether it's enforcing specific data requirements, automating processes, or integrating with external systems. Example:
apex trigger CustomObjectTrigger on Custom_Object__c (before insert, after update) {
  // Trigger logic for a custom object use case
}
Z - Zero Errors Error handling and exception management are essential in triggers to ensure data integrity and avoid unexpected issues during execution. Example:
apex public static void onBeforeInsert(List newAccounts) {
  try {
    // Trigger logic and data operations
  } catch (Exception e) {
    // Handle and log errors
  }
}

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